Sunday, March 15, 2020
Hares and Pikas - Lagomorpha - The Animal Encyclopedia Hares, pikas and rabbits (Lagomorpha) are small terrestrial mammals that include cottontails, jackrabbits, pikas, hares and rabbits. The group is also commonly referred to as lagomorphs. There are about 80 species of lagomorphs divided into two subgroups, the pikas and the hares and rabbits. Lagomorphs are not as diverse as many other mammal groups, but they are widespread. They inhabit every continent except Antarctica and are absent from only a few places around the globe such as parts of South America, Greenland, Indonesia and Madagascar. Although not native to Australia, lagomorphs have been introduced there by humans and have since successfully colonized many parts of the continent. Lagomorphs generally have a short tail, large ears, wide-set eyes and narrow, slit-like nostrils that they can scrunch tightly closed. The two subgroups of lagomorphs differ considerably in their general appearance. Hares and rabbits are larger and have long hind legs, a short bushy tail and long ears. Pikas, on the other hand, in contrast, are smaller than hares and rabbits and more rotund. They have round bodies, short legs and a tiny, barely-visible tail. Their ears are prominent but are rounded and not as conspicuous as those of hares and rabbits. Lagomorphs often form the foundation of many predator-prey relationships in the ecosystems they inhabit. As important prey animals, lagomorphs are hunted by animals such as carnivores, owls and birds of prey. Many of their physical characteristics and specializations have evolved as a means of helping them escape predation. For example, their large ears enable them to hear approaching danger better; the position of their eyes enables them to have a near 360-degree range of vision; their long legs enable them to run quickly and out-maneuver predators. Lagomorphs are herbivores. They feed on grass, fruits, seeds, bark, roots, herbs and other plant material. Since the plants they eat are difficult to digest, they expel a wet fecal matter and eat it to ensure that the material passes through their digestive system twice. This enables them to extract as much nutrition as possible from their food. Lagomorphs inhabit most terrestrial habitats including semi-deserts, grasslands, woodlands, tropical forests and arctic tundra. Their distribution is worldwide with the exception of Antarctica, southern South America, most islands, Australia, Madagascar, and the West Indies. Lagomorphs have been introduced by humans to many ranges in which they were not formerly found and often such introductions have lead to widespread colonization. Evolution The earliest representative of the lagomorphs is thought to be Hsiuannania, a ground dwelling herbivore that lived during the Paleocene in China. Hsiuannania is know from just a few fragments of teeth and jaw bones. Despite the scant fossil record for early lagomorphs, what evidence there is indicates that the lagomorph clade originated somewhere in Asia. The earliest ancestor of rabbits and hares lived 55 million years ago in Mongolia. Pikas emerged about 50 million years ago during the Eocene. Pika evolution is difficult to resolve, as only seven species of pikas are represented in the fossil record. Classification The classification of lagomorphs is highly controversial. At one time, lagomorphs were considered to be rodents due to striking physical similarities between the two groups. But more recent molecular evidence has supported the notion that lagomorphs are no more related to rodents than they are to other mammal groups. For this reason they are now ranked as an entirely separate group of mammals. Lagomorphs are classified within the following taxonomic hierarchy: Animals Chordates Vertebrates Tetrapods Amniotes Mammals Lagomorphs Lagomorphs are divided into the following taxonomic groups: Pikas (Ochotonidae) - There are about 30 species of pikas alive today. Members of this group include silver pikas, collard pikas, steppe pikas, Chinese red pikas, Himalayan pikas, and many other species. Pikas are notable for their short, rounded ears, lack of a tail, and round body. Hares and rabbits (Leporidae) -Ã There are about 50 species of hares and rabbits alive today. Members of this group include eastern cottontails, robust cottontails, European rabbits, antelope jackrabbits, snowshoe hares, Arctic hares, volcano rabbits, desert hares, Abyssinian hares, and many others.
Thursday, February 27, 2020
SE Machinery Pty Ltd (SEM) - Term Paper Example When the customer contributed $500,000 as capital contribution to SEM in May 2011, it appeared in the books as part of the Equity or Capital Account and reported as part of the gross profit by yearend which ended June 2012.. In such a transaction wherein actual cash was received and SEM chose to recognize the cash inflow as capital, the tax law provides that this be considered as ordinary income. Division 6 Ã¢â¬â Assessable Income and Exempt Income, Section 6.5, states that Australian residentsÃ¢â¬â¢ ordinary income are assessed whether derived from within Australia or outside, including those derived indirectly or directly Ã¢â¬Å"from all sourcesÃ¢â¬ (Australian Parliament 1997, Section 6.5). As Flynn, M.(2009, p.171) had stated, Ã¢â¬Å"The second test is to ask whether the receipt represents a flow produced by an item of capital. If it does, the receipt is revenue.Ã¢â¬ B. However, the Arthur Murray principle will apply for the prepayment. According to Kater, E. (2009), u nder that principle, income is generally not derived until after services or products have been delivered, except in a situation wherein there may not be a refund of prepayment according to a contract. There was no contract which specifically stated there can be no refund under certain conditions. Income was recognized in June 2012 even though products were yet to be delivered in August 2012. The prepayments were recognized as revenue so that the gross profit includes the value of that prepaid order. But requirements for such a capital contribution to be considered an Income of SEM were not yet completed although prepaid. The goods (Teftoffelex) were delivered only in August 2012. Since there is no contract stipulating that the prepayment was not refundable, the Arthur Murray principle will allow for the delay in payment of Income Tax corresponding to the $ 1,200,000 worth of orders. SEM has received payment and delivered the orders only in August 2012. Thus, this will result in hav ing unearned income as of yearend, June 2012. The Arthur Murray Principle will be applicable because income should be recognized only after the fulfilment of an order and after payment had been received. But this only means that in the next income declaration, income tax would have to be paid for the $1,200,000. The book entries should have been as follows (Appendix 1) It is only after the delivery of goods that the liability account, Unearned Revenues, amounting to a total of $ 1,200,000 should be reversed to consider the entire $ 1,200,000 as Sales. Thus, the proper advice to SEM is to adjust the Sales by $ 1,200,000 because it is in fact still a liability (as Unearned Income) and will remain that way until the goods are delivered. II A. Explanations for Revenue and Expense Accounts 1. Bad Debt Deduction After Write-Off = $8,000 Section 63 paragraphs 34-39 allows for deductions of bad debts only after they have been written off. (AG/ATO 2012, TR 92/18). The Australian Taxation Law under Act No. 55 as amended, in Division 21-5. 2. Interest Expense on Working Capital = $ 25,000 Borrowed @ 8% Interest From February 1, 2012 to end of June 2012 which is 5 months, SEM should recognize the accrued interest expense. This would amount to 25,000 x 0.08 x 5 mos. / 12 months = $ 833. According to the AASB 123 Core Principle (AG/AASB 2009, p. 7 & 9), Ã¢â¬Å"Borrowing Costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction, or production of a qualifying asset form part of the cost of that asset. All other borrowing costs are recognized as an expense.Ã¢â¬ This should include interest (Section 6a p. 9). Usually, interest expenses are prepaid upon release of borrowed money. And based on the Principle of Profit Determination of the AASB(AAT & Willis, D. 1997, p.7), the expense should be matched with the revenue given a certain period. Thus, upon receipt of the loan, interest expenses should have been treated as Prepaid Interest. And the Prepaid Interest asset account should be reduced by the accrued expense value which would amount
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
Financial Management & control - Essay Example The company has not been able to earn more from the money of its shareholders. In 2011, it has earned approximately 30% lesser than 2010 from the money invested by its shareholders which resulted in a decline in return on equity. The debtorsÃ¢â¬â¢ collection rose by 47 days over the previous year which means that in 2011, the company now required 130 days to get the money from its debtors which it did in 83 days in 2010. This not only blocks the money for the company but also makes the company lose on the interest of the money blocked with the debtors. The chance of the debtors going bad also increases if the payment cycle expands which has been proved by bad debts going up by more than 200%. The operating profit of the company has halved from 17% in 2010 to 8.5% in 2011, which implies that even when the company has sold more than the previous year, it has not been able to make profits out of the sales. This can be due to many reasons. The company might have sold at lesser price or the company might have incurred greater selling expenses. ... The current ratio of the company increased from 1.5 in 2010 to 1.8 in 2011. The increase in the current ratio is a result of the increase in current assets which includes an increase in the debtorsÃ¢â¬â¢ collection period due to which the debtors are rising, an overdraft bank balance and more than doubling of bad debts inflating the current ratio. The acid test ratio increased from 1.2 in 2010 to 1.5 in 2011. This indicates that the company now has lesser short-term assets to sell in order to cover up its immediate liabilities without selling off its inventories. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to pay off its interest expenses has also declined and it is indicated by the fall in the interest cover ratio from 9.6 times in 2010 to 4.34 times in 2011. This is due to the shortage of funds which has been blocked by the debtors, increasing bad debts, bank overdraft balance etc. The gearing ratio describes the level of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s capital being funded by the ownersÃ¢â¬â¢ money ver sus the money of creditors. Here, it has declined by 3% as the creditors collection period has also slightly decreased. This means that the company is paying off its creditors earlier than it used to do in the previous year. This results in lesser availability to creditorsÃ¢â¬â¢ funds and more reliability of the business on the ownersÃ¢â¬â¢ equity. The earnings per share of the company declined from 0.63 in 2010 to 0.29 in 2011. A decline in EPS is the result of a decline in the profitability of the company. EPS measures the allocation of companyÃ¢â¬â¢s profit to each of its outstanding shares. Since profit has declined, the allocation to each share also declined and hence the EPS. The operating cash flow per share of the company increased from 1.2 in 2010 to 1.5 in 2011
Friday, January 31, 2020
Pizza Pan Business Plan Essay P ? ? ? ? izza Pan is an Australian Company, has developed two new styles of frozen pizza that is lite-cheese, single size whole meal pizza and a jumbo, topping-plus pizza. Pizza Pan is considering undertaking a promotional campaign to market these new varieties in Malaysia. As a marketing manager, we are required to: To outline possible marketing goal for Pizza Pan in promoting these new products. To identify and analyses target markets for these two products. To develop a marketing mix for ONE of these product. To develop an appropriate competitive marketing strategies for Pizza Pan ? In order to outline possible marketing goal for Pizza Pan in promoting these new products. So fast food is one of the worlds largest growing food types. As such Pizza Pan is also one of the well known companies in frozen pizza. This has currently developed two new styles of frozen Pizza. One of the pizzas is a light-cheese, single-size and whole meal pizza whereas another pizza favor is a jumbo, topping-plus pizza. As all of us knew, Malaysia which is a multicultural country which populate by more than 2. 8 million people and they loves experiencing new products and specially food and this country surrounded by hyper-competitors, yet Pizza Pan is considering undertaking a promotional campaign to market these new varieties in Malaysia. Obviously in order to promote these products effectively and efficiently the company needs planning ahead the marketing goals and strategies. Since Malaysia population was 28,728,607 during July 2012. Meanwhile there are 28,728,607 people on Malaysia, out of 29. 6% of Malaysian was 0-14 years old; 65.4% who are in 15-64 years old and there are also over 5% of Malaysian are 65 years old and above. Refer to the index shown; we had decided the goal of Pizza Pan is within one year 80% of Malaysian will get know Pizza Pan. We set the goal at 80%, there are 29. 6% of people are 0 to 14 years old in Malaysia let ignore the baby so we minus out 15 % on the group of age in 0 to 14 year olds so it will be 14. 6% of people who are in 9 to 14 years old. When added up with the group who are in 15 to 64 years old, 65. 4% + 14. 6% there are 80%. Now 80% of Malaysian there are all who can have Pizza or who love Pizza. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s because baby who just born will not able to enjoy Pizza Pan and People Who over 65 years old will not like fast food or less although when they are young they like to have it. So we decided to minus out this two group therefore Pizza Pan has specific segments to achieve. Then, another goal would be associative in promoting these new Pan Pizza. One of it is to become the market share leader of frozen pizza products amongst its other competitors. Due to that creating customers awareness is also another important goal in promoting these new products. Whereby the company is aiming of rising up to 80% awareness towards these products and beat the rest of the competitors. In simple word, Pizza Pan Company also aims in retaining new customers into long term customers. With this, sales of the new product can be increased due to excellent brand image, attractive advertisement, showing the temptation to eat the product which has been positioned in consumers mind and their willingness to spend the money or experience new products on how creativity of the product can meet their satisfaction comparing to the standards favor of frozen pizza. In brief, we expect customers be aware of these new products in the market. For instance, during the first promotional period of these products, we are targeting the sales of RM2 billion for the frozen pizzas with low price strategy to gain the market share during the growth of life-cycle. In addition achieving true and loyalty customers towards the products is also our objective. In order to be first among equals in a category, the company needs to be more innovative by designing more alternatives selection for consumers. Besides, the company needs to promote the category brand first after only individual brand. Due to promoting frozen pizza it has an advantage like promotional saying Ã¢â¬Å"let frozen pizza refresh you todayÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Eat fresh anytime frozen pizzaÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Instant pizza, frozen pizzaÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Ready to eat any timeÃ¢â¬ etcÃ¢â¬ ¦. ? In order to identify and analyses target markets for these two pizza products target markets for Pizza Pan Company are demographic, geographical, psychographic and behavioral. The company is intending to promote the two new products into the selected target markets. This would be metropolitan cities such as Kuala Lumpur, Johor Bahru, Selangor, Penang etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ From the demographic market point of views, Pizza Pan Company is targeting for the highest expiation of consumers which are between 18 to 48 years of age and the expiation is starting to drop at the starting ages of 49 for the people. Besides, the company is not fixing the gender of consumers of selecting the products. Demographic speaking, the company is targeting for the single and married people who are like main customer for the company. It can be easy for the people who are individuals or even working marriage couples who are likelihood to consume frozen pizza and having busy life style and have to prepare meals for themselves. So itÃ¢â¬â¢s time consuming and full satisfaction for busy people. Moreover it will also ease the burdens of parent as even children can prepare their own meals in a very safe way. Not only income and occupation of consumers are included in the demographic market. For example, a person who is holding the high-position in the rapid changing world, can means he/she is high income earner who has to responsible with amount of workloads through working against its time. Hence, they are encountering frozen pizza is fast food and best convenient option for them to work through their days. Besides, the company is targeting for the Englisheducated students who are more likely to follow the western style by consuming frozen pizza as their priority frequent meal whereas Chinese -educated students are preferred in consuming flour products as their elementary needs such as rice. Since Malaysia is multicultural country and comprising of variety race with different religion. Therefore, Pizza Pan Company is taking into consideration of religion respects as their target market. As a result, two new frozen pizzas are promoting but restricting with no pork contents, namely Halal in order to be available for Malaysian consumers. Also, the young generation has becoming the target market to focus on nowadays. Owing to the lack of responsibilities that teenagers have and the lack of home cooked meals whiles home alone, along with current trends of impatience youngsters that everything must be simple and fast, thus frozen pizza is a quick alternative for meal. The geographical target market for the company is Malaysia. The company is targeting for the metropolitan such as Kuala Lumpur which is the capital of Malaysia and Penang as the second high population area. Johor Bahru with high population and the people who works in Singapore, so basically they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have time to cook or even eat outside food. However, the company would only develop the two new products to other urban area and rural area when the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s see some progress or growth in economic situation. Besides that, it is also due to the reason that rural area people spending power is dependable on their own economic growth. This is generated in a traditional way for many decades instead of spending on a new product. Moreover, the new products are available in shopping malls, grocery shops and even schools. Another target markets owing to psychographic is individuals who value their health and diet. They are those who have a fast-paced life and dont seem to have much time on their hands. They are those who find it difficult to fit in something health for lunch as anything that is fast is fast-food. For example, frozen pizza is quick, easy and delicious at the same time can have for lunch. The home oriented is the people who are willingly to stay in the house rather than hanging out for their lunch or dinner. Besides, target market to focus on for Pizza Pan is all social class can enjoy the frozen pizza as it is economical for everyone. With the outgoing and energetic personality individuals are on the list of target market because they might curious to come across of how delicious a new frozen pizza can be. The target markets for behavioral segmentations are benefits, usage status and attitude towards product. Attitude towards product is the emotional response in which positive attitude would affect the usage and loyalty status to a company. If the new frozen pizzas are meeting the customers satisfaction, hence new consumers would insist of consuming the pizza by shifting to the regular consumers. In order to benefits the on diet or health conscious consumers, Pizza Pan is designing the light-cheese, single -size and whole meal pizza with adequate nutritious guaranteed on the package. Moreover, the advantages of new frozen pizzas are only to be cooked in just 5 minutes. It would beneficial busy workers who are working around the clocks to be fast and convenient for their time efficiency yet economical for their livings in the rat race world. ? In order to develop a marketing mix for ONE of the products. The marketing mix is primarily made up of four variables and they are 4pÃ¢â¬â¢s which is Product, Place, Price, and Promotion. The marketing mix is often described as a method used in developing a viable marketing strategy, with each ingredient being used different ways and at different times based on the product or service one is trying to market . The type of place channels used by Pizza Pan is the direct channel. The direct channel is successful when there is a very large market that is geographically dispersed. The direct channel is also useful when there are a large number of buyers, but a small amount purchased by each. Pizza Pan uses two different methods of selling its products directly to the market. The first method of place used by Pizza Pan is free delivery as suppliers . The Company would supply their products to wholesalers, retail chains, supermarkets and online but with certain amount of purchase or even small neighborhood grocers for their mass selling. The advantages of using the method are a lower search cost or easy to find for our consumer. Consumers will not have to search the lengths of the earth to find our product. Basically they could find it anywhere. Another method of distribution is for consumers to dine-in especially those who are travelers can go to the highway recreational stands or even conveniences stores like 24 hours Seven-Eleven shop to purchase the fresh from oven frozen pizza. It can mean convenient as quick and take-away products for the travelers eager of reaching the destination. Product Pizza Pan should offer a new product called The Deluxe Plus pizza. The Deluxe Plus is a light-cheese, single-size, whole meal pizza which is the alternative choice for the health-conscious who is on diet with light cheese content pizza along with the current trend that slim is beautiful for female who is likely to consume whole meal foods rather than origin flour foods. This new pizza will have many different competitive advantages. The first competitive advantage of The Deluxe Plus is dietetic food concerned for consumers. The second competitive advantage is the whole meal pizza which is in reasonable price and single-size than any other pizza on the market which is a jumbo pizza. In simple words, it would be a waste for an individual finish the pizza on time. Thus, The Deluxe Plus helps for cost-saving. Another competitive advantage is the Pizza Pan brand name. Pizza Pan has built an international brand name which means quality products. Since Pizza Pan will be introducing The Deluxe Plus customers will automatically think this is a high quality product. The final competitive advantage is that this product will be the special designed pizza to target Malaysian youth. The Deluxe Plus will target young generation or people between the ages of 18 and 48. This market purchases a lot of pizza each year, but very few pizza restaurants actually target them. It will be introduced on Rtm1, 2, 3, 8TV channel. During the introduction stage of the product life cycle, Pizza Pan will try to establish a market for the product and persuade early adopters to buy. The Deluxe Plus is expected to begin and declining the purchase intent after one year on the market. Pricing strategy plays an importance role too because it affects both revenue and buyer behavior. The retail pricing strategy allows Pizza Pan to charge a price that is lower than the competition, in order to promote the frequent sales since the market of the demand of suppliers and consumers are elastic. Customers are price sensitive and the quantity demanded will increase significantly as price decline. Therefore, several sales promotions and coupons will be used to lower the price below those competitors. For example, Pizza Pan is offering free pizza on purchase on two pizzas on special occasions like Chinese New Year, Deepavli or Raya holidays etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ The high or low pricing strategy has several advantages. Firstly, pricing strategy will help to segment the market. Different groups of customers are willing to pay different prices for the same product. Pizza Pan is enabling to sell The Deluxe Plus to the consumers who are first-come-firstserve with economical price. Customers will be able to try something new when they purchase The Deluxe Plus and this exciting experience may bring those customers back to purchase other products. The main theme that will be used to promote The Deluxe Plus is youth. Since Life brand of tomato, chili or BBQ sauce is becoming the non-substitute items for Pizza, therefore it will be included in promotions like KFC. The main promotion will be a coupon to purchase The Deluxe Plus and receive a bottle of sauces which includes many favors. The objectives of this promotion are to introduce a new product, stimulate demand, change the short-term behavior of the customers; This promotion will be distributed mainly by mail, but also by fliers on college campuses or supermarket malls in order to reach the target market. The Deluxe Plus will be published in the newspapers or magazines that are popular with the target market such as STAR, New Straits Times, Woman weekly, Apartments post box and Seventeen. Although advertisements are not cheap, Pizza Pan is an Australian company who is preparing the financial resources to advertise. The young people will then eat The Deluxe Plus with their favor sauces. There will also the teaser banners will be bought to be displayed on bus stops, lampposts or even the Billboard announcements will be placed wherever on the highways for the travelers to notice it. Thu, the advertisements campaign can create awareness of the new product in the target markets. ? In order to develop appropriate competitive marketing strategies for Pizza Pan, Pizza Pan has tough competitors such as Pizza Hutt, Dominos, Barista, Papa Johns, Subway and many others. Hence, there are several competitive marketing strategies that are developed in order to compete with them. Our main intention is to be overall cost leadership, for offer lowest price to the consumer. We are also planning to practice differentiation by offering products with unique customers benefit or features which is not available from the competitive offerings. For instance the The Deluxe Plus which is a health concern product. We want to create a unique selling proposition that gives a real competitive edge Pizza Pans business growth strategy starts with a strong competitive positioning strategy in the marketplace there will discounts offered as a part of a grand opening campaign. Moreover we should watch on over competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s strategies too whatever they apply for their product we could plan for it too. Such as Pizza Hutt is offering buy one get one free so pizza pan could work on that too. Then, product leadership is also another strategy as we aim in leading in frozen pizza In Malaysia. Hence, before leading in we have to enter the new global markets; we also intend to create a local partnership with Malaysian businessman. For example, Pan Pizza that originated from Australian company would identify local partners in Malaysia like share holders in food industries so that it will be easier for them to markets the new variety products in Malaysia. This is because local partners know on how to attract their country people and to bring these products to customers as they can receive a good response. Another marketing strategy would be balancing customers and competitor orientations. In specific, we focus on being market centered company. This actually focuses more on customers development in designing strategy. Whereby strategies that can increase products availability and promotion in existing markets. To enter new global markets, the we would make a sponsorship within targeted countries. For example Pizza Hut is an American restaurant chain International franchise having their store locations in Malaysia and they achieve their goals and objective of their company like sponsoring shirt for English football club or become a part time sponsor of Galaxy M. Thus, we would also sponsor for Malaysian tennis or squash team during tournament. Finally, a small-scale trial can be a good way of testing a marketing strategy without committing to excessive cost. Whereby, a SWOT analysis would be carried out that includes strength, weakness, opportunities, threats. As for strengths, Pizza Pan is known for personal and flexible customers and service, depth industry experience, creative yet practical product designer, the use of highly flexible and efficient utilizing direct customerÃ¢â¬â¢s sales and distribution, varied menu items for broad appeal, high/consistent quality, and strong advertising marketing promotion. Then, weaknesses of lack of an established reputation of frozen Pizza in Malaysia, In conclude, promotion methods used by Pizza Pan tend to create product awareness amongst its new consumer in frozen pizza market. As mentioned earlier segment of the market that we have targeted is a very diverse group whereby promotion of the product has to be done in a very diversify style and unique. It is also believed that The Deluxe Plus will bring Pizza Pan a great success by using effective marketing mix strategy which may even consume high cost in its promotional campaigns but, however we strongly believe that, our potential product will cover the cost and gain maximum profit. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Demographics_of_Malaysia http://www. pizzapanonline. com/ http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Pizza_Pan http://www. marketingteacher. com/lesson_marketing_mix. htm http://www. markedbyteachers. com/catalogsearch/result/index/? http://in_defense_of_frozen_foods_9907348. html http://www. quickmba. com/marketing/mix/ Uk marketing uni. Kotler keller,(2006),marketing management.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Canada's Economy in 1996 To investigate the state of the Canadian economy, it is very useful to track Canada's six major economic goals: economic growth, economic stability, economic efficiency, economic equity, viable balance of payments, and low unemployment. At a given time, Canada is achieving some of these goals while falling behind on some of the others. When taken all into consideration, these goals give an indication of how well Canada has been doing and the stage of the business cycle the Canadian economy is in. In 1996-1997, Canada is in slight recession and is only meeting the goals of economic stability, and viable balance of payments. Canada can be said to be in a period of slight recession because there is a downswing in economic activity. To confirm a true recovery, "an economy must show no growth for two consecutive quarters." However, Canada is not in a true recession because there was a 3.0% growth in the third quarter, compared to 2.2% in the second quarter. Eventhough it is not true recession, the slow growth is a sure sign of a slight one. Low inflation is also is also prevalent and is symptomatic of a weak economy. A low inflation rate of 1.4% in November 1996 does not provide much of an indication for economic growth and expansion. A shrinking positive balance of payments indicates these are tough economic times. A fourth indication of a slight recession is the high unemployment rate. An unemployment rate of 10.0% in November 1996 is definitely not a sign of strong economic recovery. Canada is always trying to work towards the goal of economic growth. Economic growth is the percentage change of GDP over a period of time and is also known as the growth rate. In 1996, Canada's GDP has been increasing slowly since the first quarter. The GDP in the first quarter was 1.8%, then increased to 2.2% in the second quarter, and in the third quarter it rose to 3.0%. In this way, Canada has been experiencing steady growth. This goal is being met because of the increase in consumer spending inspite of the government cutbacks. Consumer spending levels tell producers what to produce, and how much to produce. If consumer spending increases, it gives a signal to the producers to produce more which causes the increasing GDP. The government cutbacks contribute does contribute to lower consumer confidence and, thus, slows the economic growth. Slow, growth causes few jobs to be created as it means a slower rate of expansion of industries. When there is slow growth, few jobs are being created,
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
In the advent of single-parenthood within the nation and along with the controversial emergence of the reproductive health bill as a major feature of the year 2008, an attempt to look into the increasing concern on the population increase serves as the starting point for this study. The researches felt the need to conduct further study on the said domain, specifically focusing on the development of the sons who were raised by single mothers. The general objective of the current study is to find out the impact of mother-son relationship in the formation of social-psychological attributes by males raised by single mothers. Respondents of the study were composed of 30 males coming from the provinces of Cebu, Cagayan de Oro, Bukidnon, and Bacolod City, whose age ranged from 13-36, and those who were raised by single mothers. Results rendered that males raised by single mothers perceived an ideal mother as someone who is caring, understanding, and loving, and an ideal father as someone who is responsible or a good provider, wise, and loving and caring. Being raised in an atypical family type, males coming from single-parent family viewed an ideal family as intact, happy, full of love and care. The advantages of being raised by single mothers included being well taken-cared of, maturing early, and learning to be independent, while the lack of a male figure, financial deficiency, and the feeling of insecurity were on top of the list for the disadvantages of being in a single-parent family. Asking help from friends and relatives, doing nothing about the situation and self-reflection were some of the coping mechanisms of these males. Attitude toward marriage (x=3. 48) and levels of self-esteem (x=3. 95) were positively correlated to the level of self-disclosure of males raised by single mothers. This means that males who feel comfortable to disclose any information about themselves towards their mothers are most likely to have a positive outlook toward marriage and are more likely to develop a higher level of self-esteem compared to those who keep their thoughts to themselves.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Introduction Schizophrenia is a well-known emotional and mental disorder that causes hallucinations, and paranoid and delusional behaviour (Hoffer, 2004). In contrast to many other diseases, schizophrenia is mostly due to genetics and influenced by the environment. People who suffer from this disorder usually cannot differentiate from the imaginative world from the real one. Schizophrenia is often a result of stress and develops gradually (DeLisi, 2011). It is therefore, essential to start early treatment of the disorder. To better understand Schizophrenia, one must know the symptoms, the treatments, the prognosis and the effect the disease has on the schizophrenic and others around them. Symptoms There are aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦However, identifying this constellation of symptoms can be difficult as some symptoms of Schizophrenia last for a relatively short period of time and may not be present at the same time as other symptoms (DeLisi, 2011), while others persist for six months at a time, or longer. In schizophrenia, problems in functioning occur in two categories of symptoms: positive and negative. The word positive here is not used in a complimentary way, rather, it designates the more alarming of the two types of schizophrenic symptoms. It refers to increased activity, excessive or distorted thought process, and actions. Positive symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, confused speech, and grossly disorganized or catatonic behaviour (Nadelson, 2005). Delusion and hallucinations fall within what psychologists call the psychotic dimension of schizophrenia. The other positive symptoms are in what s known as the disorganization dimension. Another positive symptoms of schizophrenia is persecution which is the most common delusion. When a schizophrenic student notices a group of classmates huddled in conversation, for example, and one of them turns to glance at her or him, the schizophrenic might feel paranoid (Young, 2000). Grandiosity is another kind of delusion, where the schizophrenic assumes some characteristic that make them special. Some will believe that he or she can r ead minds or control other people s action by concentration thought.